Quick Info Name: Peru More about Peru Peru (officially named the Republic of Peru) is a country in South America that’s home to a section of Amazon rainforest. The Peruvian Amazon covers 60% of the country. You will also find Machu Picchu, an ancient Incan city high in the Andes mountains. There are no words to describe this city in the sky, you simply must see it for yourself. The region around Machu Picchu, including the Sacred Valley, Inca Trail and colonial city of Cusco, is rich in archaeological sites. On Peru’s arid Pacific coast is Lima, the capital, with a preserved colonial centre and important collections of pre-Columbian art. Lima is home to more than a quarter of Peru’s population. Modern day Peru has been home to many ancient civilizations, the largest and wealthiest of these was the Incas who’s empire ruled for over 100 years until the Spanish arrived in the 16th century. The Inca Empire was centred around highlands of the Andes mountain range and the civilization’s capital city Cusco and mountain top citadel Machu Picchu are popular with visiting tourists to this day.